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Posted on December 8, 2014 By Dhafir Al Shammery

To help stop business break-ins, your are required to adopt the following measures:

 

  • Display the street/shop number and business name at the front of the business to assist emergency services locate the property;
  • Post warning signs around the business to warn intruders about the security features you have in place;
  • Remove obstacles and rubbish from property boundaries, footpaths, driveways, car parks and buildings;
  • Install security lighting around the perimeter of the business, particularly over entry/exit points;
  • The doors, walls, floor and ceilings of the building should be of solid construction. Limit the number of entry/exit points to restrict unauthorised access;
  • Doors should be fitted with quality single cylinder dead lock sets to comply with the Australian Building Code, fire regulations;
  • Glass within doors and windows should be reinforced with either a shatter resistant film or laminated glass;
  • Record descriptions, models/serial numbers of property owned by your business;
  • If your business deals in cash then you should consider the installation of a safe to provide additional security. The safe should be manufactured and installed to the Australian and New Zealand Standards and should be anchored to restrict removal;
  • Limit the amount of money you hold in the cash drawer. Don’t count money in public view;
  • Have a monitored intruder alarm system installed to enhance the physical security of your business;
  • All ATMS should be placed away from entry points of your shop. They should be anchored to the ground and covered by way of CCTV.

Written by Dhafir Al Shammery

Dhafir is one of the highest qualified managers in security with a Master pf policing, intelligence & Counter Terrorism. His Higher education obtained in the security studies enables him to implement and execute the right security measures, policies, strategies and methodologies required. Dhafir has been working in the Security Industry since 1998 and been the security consultant for a number of companies within Australia and overseas. Dhafir participations in conferences, discussions and strategic studies in the security field nationally and internationally have added to his knowledge and have a significant impact on his performance and role to be one of the highest qualified managers in the security industry field.

Posted on December 8, 2014 By Dhafir Al Shammery

This article outlines Fraud as one of the White collar crime types, defines fraud and discusses its impact, extent, motives and the measures needed to prevent it.

 

Due to the development of technology, globalisation and the use of communications and information, the level of fraud has been increased dramatically. Governments and businesses suffer great losses because of fraud. The bill is very high; billions of dollars have been stolen, especially when this type of crime often goes unreported to the police or to other law enforcement agencies. Understanding the nature and the extent of fraud will help governments and business to implement measures and policies in order to minimise their loss.

Money is not the only loss of fraud. Human lives are another great loss of fraud. Two of the 9/11 hijackers obtained false identities to board American Airlines flight 11; each of the 19 hijackers may have used in one way or another fake identification cards, social security numbers and other identification documents in order to commit their crime and cause the loss of innocent lives.

In his report P J Barrett, the Australian Auditor-General, refers to surveys indicating that most government agencies do not fully comply with the Commonwealth fraud control guidelines, especially in areas of defining and measuring fraud, performing risk assessments, fraud control planning, and fraud controlling and reporting.Not complying with the fraud control guidelines would leave a ring missing in the chain of fighting the crime.

We need to assess the scope of the problem in order to enable us discussing motivations behind fraud and solutions that have been implemented to fight this type of crime and to help legislate and develop protective measures to respond to this type of threat.

Defining fraud

What is fraud? Many organisations, law agencies, criminal law specialists and others who study or research fraud have put a definition for fraud. The Australian Commonwealth Fraud Control Guidelines defines fraud as “dishonestly obtaining a benefit by deception or other means”, Work Cover NSW Australia defines fraud as “Obtaining money or a financial advantage through dishonesty or deception”, while Michael Pollick from Wise Geek defines fraud as “a misrepresentation which causes damages mostly financial losses”, Grace Duffield and Peter Grabosky from the Australian Institute of Criminology say that “Fraud means obtaining something of value or avoiding an obligation by means of deception.” All of those definitions tell us that fraud is an act that is deliberately practised by the fraudster. Australian legislation has included fraud under the Criminal Code (Theft, Fraud, Bribery and Related offences) A2004-15. However, those entire definitions limit the motive behind fraud to gain financial benefit. The question that could be asked would be, is money the only reason or motive behind Fraud?

Before answering this question I believe outlining types of fraud will enable us to address motives behind the fraud, and then discuss its impact on businesses, governments and individuals. Defining fraud in the right way would enable us to plant the right strategies and solutions to control and prevent fraud.

Fraud Types

Fraud is commenced and executed in many forms and types, albeit identity fraud is the most common practice by fraudsters, having or claiming false identity is the key to committing and execute other types of fraud. In Appendix A of their paper Identity Fraud, WILLCOX and REGAN identify some 27 crimes committed utilising identity fraud such as; telecommunication fraud, bankruptcy fraud, telemarketing fraud, online share market fraud, electronic fund transfer, credit card fraud, money laundering, government benefits, taxation pay fraud, etc. Another type of fraud is “Scientific Fraud” which is the use of someone else’s text or data without acknowledgement or “Academic Dishonesty” as the Wikipedia defines it, citing that it can include Plagiarism, Fabrication, Deception, Cheating and Sabotage.

Detecting Fraud

Is it possible to have a strategy that could give us an early warning that some procedures are helping or assisting fraudsters to commit fraud? And is it possible to detect fraud in the process or unreported fraud?

Fraud analysts’ advice for organisations in detecting fraud is to watch for early warning signs

Behavioural (people suddenly changing their lifestyles).
Statistical (expenses, sudden changes in credit card bills, tax deductions and insurance claims).
Organizational (lack of transparency, the absence of financial control systems, poor leadership, inflated financial targets).
Ernest & Yong sees that victimised organisations contribute to the increasing level of fraud due to factors such as the complexity, increasing speed, ignorance, inadequate audit and internal control. Victims provide answers to acquisitions of a credit card, mortgage, and personal, account details in respond to telemarketing calls or phishing e-mails are due to lack of fraud knowledge, contributing to the increasing levels of fraud. While such acquisitions should be considered as an early warning sign of fraud, despite the fact that many fraudsters use legitimate company names in order to acquire information that can be used to gain a financial benefit or to commit identity theft. Law enforcement agencies warn individuals of such scams.

Russell G Smith from the Australian Institute of Criminology argues that gathering data on fraud can be helpful in a variety of ways that could be utilised to detect fraud and suggests:

Better understanding for crime and criminal behaviour.
Providing intelligence that may be used to detect and prevent similar patterns of crimes in the future.
Providing data may be used for research and planning in criminal justice administration.
Motives behind fraud

Money, financial benefits and advantages are the main reasons behind all types of fraud, but not the only reasons. Terrorism was the motive behind obtaining false identities by the 9/11 hijackers; money wasn’t the motive; terrorism is the motive behind terrorists obtaining forged visas and passports to enter countries where they can commit a terrorist act.

Another motive is the search for a better life in rich or democratic countries. People living in countries under hard economic situations can be motivated by getting a better chance of getting jobs; health care, better education or those who live under dictatorship regimes seek to obtain a forged identity, passport and other countries’ ID cards. In Tijuana Mexico robbers steal 6,000 identity cards with estimated value of US $1million on the black market. These cards would allow entry to the United States. Political conflicts, civil wars and occupation, force hundreds of thousands of people to obtain false identity documents to flee their countries in order to sneak into or seek protection in other countries.

Financial strain, greed, gambling, illicit drugs, smuggling, marital breakdown can also be motives along with sexual relationships, substance abuse and risk-taking in what is known by the “hypothesis of the three Bs (Babes, Booze and Bets).” Ego and power whether over people or over the situation can be other factors behind motives. Frustration due unfair treatment by the procedures of business or government systems lead those who believe that they have lost their rewards, benefits or rights can be another motive behind fraud which leads to, for example, direct cash theft, making false expenses claims and payroll fraud. Another factor in motivating fraudsters is consumer desire for wealth health and power supported with consumer’s lack of knowledge representing a weak link that fraudsters can follow to collect consumer’s data in order to commit fraud.

Extent and impact

Is there a limit to fraud impact on individuals, businesses and governments? How significant is fraud in our life? The Eleventh United Nation Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice suggested that the extent and impact of economic and financial crimes are increasing based on surveys indicating that around one-third of respondents of the global companies had suffered an increase from some forms of economic crime, and just under half had suffered significant fraud cases. The Congress, based on WCC Issue Paper “Securities Fraud” of the National White Collar Crime Centre in June 2003 indicated that a total of approximately $40 billion a year is the loss from securities and commodities fraud in the United State alone.

The Fraud Women’s Network, says that about £14 billion fraud costs the UK economy every year, “more than half, 57% of UK companies have been victims of economic crime,” says Rosalind Wright CB, Chairman, Fraud advisory panel. Another report by the Association of Chief Police Officers in the UK indicates that “the cost of fraud and dealing with fraud was at least £13.9 billion in the UK in 2005”. Garry Barker in his report, Identity theft a $100-billion industry, in the Sydney Morning Herald says that estimates of fraud are near $6 billion a year in Australia and as high as $100 billion worldwide.In his paper measuring the extent of the fraud in Australia, Russel Smith from the Australian Institute of Criminology indicates that “Fraud costs the nation considerably more than any other crime”, “Victimisation surveys have found that business continues to lose millions of dollars each year through fraud and various kinds”.

Examples of fraud cases

I highlighted in this paper many types of identity and other fraud, there are hundreds if not thousands of fraud cases of each type. I will outline few examples on fraud cases;

1- An e-mail you receive “from your bank” asking you to confirm your online account details by following a link, the opened page looking exactly as your bank web page. But it is not; once you enter your account number and password, fraudsters are actually collecting these data to access your real account.

2- A fraudster could steal your identification then he/she will buy and sell your assets, online shares, and even your house and run with the money.

3- “Manipulating the share price of a company by publicising invalid news items or claims on bulletin boards”. The London stock exchange reports fraud by the creation of “fictitious letters everywhere” has been practised since the Battle of Waterloo in order to control London stock exchange market. The fall of Enron, the world’s largest energy firm collapsed following the biggest fraud scam, $68 billion in market value, including $800 million of employee’s pension investment, the loss being due to fraud committed by Enron’s CEOs.

4- The biggest superannuation fund fraud in Australian history early in 2008 was an attempt to steal $150 million dollars, by transferring money from the Commonwealth superannuation scheme to different accounts across the world in what looked like a genuine routine investment transaction.

5- Spies using forged identity to spy on business and governments. A Russian spy, who spied on Canada for ten years working for the KGB involves in a high-level espionage, had obtained three Canadian passports by fraudulent means.

Measures to fight fraud

Like any major crime studies, researches and surveys are conducted to collect information and then implement deterrent and preventive strategies to reduce fraud or even prevent fraudsters from proceeding or committing fraud. Graycar and Smith assert that education, training businesses and cooperation between them, especially those who provide and conduct commercial transactions will reduce fraud.

The use of punishment by confiscation of offenders’ houses, cars and other assets is a vital measure in the deterrence strategy.

Reporting fraud plays an essential role in preventing fraud. Surveys show that individuals and business hesitate to report fraud, ascribing that to lack of knowledge, or business reputation. Victims believe that there is no adequate proof, the matter is not serious in increasing financial loss; another reason is that they might never know that they have been victimised.

The elimination of motives behind fraud as mentioned above in this article by structuring businesses in a way that reduces fraud opportunities, implementing fraud control policies is another solution.

Prevention, detection, investigation and prosecution, reporting of cases and training and education are considered as general steps for effective fraud control. Graycar as well cites three general strategies to consider when looking at identity fraud: increasing the effort, increasing the risk and reducing the rewards.

Conclusion

Fraud is a dishonest deliberate criminal act motivated by many physiological, financial, procedural, political and/or terrorism factors to gain benefits that can satisfy the fraudsters’ needs or targets and cause, as a result, mostly financial damage and sometimes loss of human lives. Studies and researches have been conducted to collect data, information. Measures have been taken, policies and strategies have implemented to fight and control fraud. However, fraud still causes billions of dollars loss every year for business, Governments and individuals in many countries around the world including Australia.

The main problem in fighting fraud is reporting. Many businesses and government bodies still avoid reporting fraud, believing that this might expose them even more to public risk and security and loss of benefits. Guidelines to educate business, governments’ bodies and individuals have been presented. Legislation and fraud control policies to have been implemented by governments in order to prevent fraud and deter fraudsters. Solutions have been suggested to minimise and eliminate motivations behind the fraud.

Although Australia has presented the 100 points identification verification policy to minimise fraud, many businesses still do not apply the policy, and the system is still not effective enough. A new Identification Card with a special microelectronic chip that contains the holder’s photo and data to be used as an Australian national identification is required, as many Australian security professionals think. The ID card will help to prevent criminals, terrorists and others trying every day to pass checkpoints at airports, sea ports and other borders’ checkpoints using forge passports, forged visas and other forged identifications documents. In another word minimise fraud’s impact on Australian National Security.

Businesses and government bodies should regularly conduct an internal audit, as well external audit by a third party body is required. Although some argue that reporting fraud is sometimes cost more than the loss it causes, immediate reporting to the authorities is a must once the fraud is spotted.

Author Dhafir Al Shammery

Dhafir is one of the highest qualified managers in security with a Master degree in policing, intelligence & Counter Terrorism. His Higher education obtained in the security studies enables him to implement and execute the right security measures, policies, strategies and methodologies required. Dhafir has been working in the Security Industry since 1998 and been the security consultant for a number of companies within Australia and overseas. Dhafir participations in conferences, discussions and strategic studies in the security field nationally and internationally have added to his knowledge and have a significant impact on his performance and role to be one of the highest qualified managers in the security industry field.

Posted on December 8, 2014 By Dhafir Al Shammery

Mental health found to be a serious concern for police due to the risk of injury to police and mental health consumers when dealing with mental health related incidents and to the time taking by police in the handover of mental health consumers into the health care system.

 

To response to such concern, the Mental Health Intervention Team (MHIT) found and commenced as a two years pilot program in July 2007 and formed its basis on the Crises Intervention Team Concept which bears its origin in Memphis, USA and was modified to meet the needs and operating environment of the NSW police. The program supported and funded by the NSW Health.

The aim of the program is to reduce the risk concerns the police in this field and seek to educate them with respect to identifying behaviours in the field of indicative of mental illness and provide them with tools such as communication strategies, risk assessment, de-escalation and crises intervention techniques and to gain an understanding of the current Mental Health Act 2007.

The program as well aims to improve police awareness of mental health consumers and to improve collaboration with other government and non-government agencies in response to, and management of, mental health crises incidents. The program since then has shown successful and positive outcomes.
Based on the positive outcome and the success of the program in reducing risk to police officers and mental health consumers, I find myself in the favour of supporting the argument that police officers needs to undertake such training and to be updated regularly with any changes may apply to the Mental Health Act.

Author Dhafir Al Shammery

Dhafir is one of the highest qualified managers in security with a Master degree in policing, intelligence & Counter Terrorism. His Higher education obtained in the security studies enables him to implement and execute the right security measures, policies, strategies and methodologies required. Dhafir has been working in the Security Industry since 1998 and been the security consultant for a number of companies within Australia and overseas. Dhafir participations in conferences, discussions and strategic studies in the security field nationally and internationally have added to his knowledge and have a significant impact on his performance and role to be one of the highest qualified managers in the security industry field.

Posted on December 8, 2014 By Dhafir Al Shammery

Police Use of force has been defined as the “amount of effort required by police to compel compliance by an unwilling subject”. This amount, however, should be the minimum needed to eliminate the threat presented, minimising the risk and solving a situation. Police must follow their guidelines and they need to be able to assess the situation and take in considerations a number of facts and factors in order to avoid or use the level of force required, and that they are authorized to use force only in specified circumstances i.e. when dealing with, persons under the influence of alcohol or drugs or against those who jeopardise the safety of police and civilians.

The US department of justice outlines five levels of force appropriate to respond to the situation at hand; Officer presence – no force is used, Verbalization, Empty-Hand Control, Lethal Force and Less-Lethal Methods. Police must take into consideration several facts in order to apply the right level of using force to handle a situation; a police officer must have the confidence, the knowledge and the required level of training to avoid abusing human rights and assuring the public that police are using their power appropriately.

The police must know and understand, promote and protect internationally recognised human rights, in every country, especially those relevant to police work i.e. Articles 3,5,7,9,11,19 and 20 of the UDHR. As well police must act to protect citizens’ rights, as well as their own rights and act within the law and understand that they are not above it. Police action may strengthen or weaken the public support necessary to sustain a viable democracy. When the law enforcer becomes the lawbreaker, public then see such act as an assault on human dignity, on the law itself and on all institutions of public authority. Ensuring that law enforcers and others who hold power in public trust do not miss use it has always been a serious concern for the judiciary. Lacey (Wainrib 2006 P45) reports more than 150 allegations of young girls and women were raped by UN peacekeepers in the Congo. Police in Australia have established for example the Ethical Standard Department in Victoria to investigate human rights abuse allegations which the unit did in cases such as the allegation about unlawful use of batons against protesters in Victoria 1993-1994, however, police must accept accountability and punish those who responsible as part of any successful police reform.

Author Dhafir Al Shammery

Dhafir is one of the highest qualified managers in security with a Master degree in policing, intelligence & Counter Terrorism. Dhafir's higher education obtained in the security studies enables him to implement and execute the right security measures, policies, strategies and methodologies required. Dhafir has been working in the Security Industry since 1998 and been the security consultant for a number of companies within Australia and overseas. Dhafir participations in conferences, discussions and strategic studies in the security field nationally and internationally have added to his knowledge and have a significant impact on his performance and role to be one of the highest qualified managers in the security industry field.

Posted on December 8, 2014 By Dhafir Al Shammery

New South Wales Government
NSW Police Force

Young people and particularly those under the age of 18 are vulnerable to the damaging effects of alcohol.

  • In Australia alcohol is a key factor in the three leading causes of death among adolescents; unintentional injury, homicide and suicide.
  • Over one in five (22%) of all hospitalisations of young people aged 15-24 years old are alcohol related.
  • Of all those hospitalised, 30% of young men and 23% of young women are hospitalised because of an alcohol related assault.

As well as the serious and obvious health consequences of underage drinking, alcohol places the drinker and those around them at considerable risk of harm. Alcohol use, particularly excessive use can increase young people’s risk of becoming a victim and / or an offender of alcohol related crime, often violent crime such as sexual assault, physical assault, robbery, driving accidents, violence and antisocial behaviour offences.

There are a number of laws in NSW designed to protect young people (under 18’s) from being sold, given or from consuming alcohol. These laws apply to those that supply alcohol to under 18’s, and the under 18’s themselves.

NSW Police Force (NSWPF) is committed to enforcing these laws and increasing community awareness of the legal, social and health harms associated with under-age drinking.

As well as enforcing laws, NSWPF is also committed to reducing under-aged drinking and the associated harms by providing parents / guardians and the wider community with important information and support to help them achieve better outcomes for their children.

To that end, NSWPF with the support of the AERF have initiated two youth specific projects targeting underage drinkers, their parents / guardians and those that supply them with alcohol. These are Supply Means Supply and Your Choice.

Australian Guidelines to Reduce Health Risks from Drinking Alcohol

In 2009 The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) released Australian guidelines about drinking alcohol when under 18 years. These guidelines state:

‘…children under 15 years of age are at the greatest risk of harm from drinking and that for this group, not drinking alcohol is especially important.’

‘For young people aged 15-17 years, the safest option is to delay the initiation of drinking for as long as possible.’

NHMRC ‘Australian Guidelines to reduce health risks from drinking alcohol’ February 2009 Guidelines (PDF)


Written by Dhafir Al Shammery

Dhafir is one of the highest qualified managers in security with a Master pf policing, intelligence & Counter Terrorism. His Higher education obtained in the security studies enables him to implement and execute the right security measures, policies, strategies and methodologies required. Dhafir has been working in the Security Industry since 1998 and been the security consultant for a number of companies within Australia and overseas. Dhafir participations in conferences, discussions and strategic studies in the security field nationally and internationally have added to his knowledge and have a significant impact on his performance and role to be one of the highest qualified managers in the security industry field.